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ONE AFTERNOON IN THE LATE 's, deep in the labyrinthine interior of a massive Gothic tower in New Haven, an unsuspecting employee of Yale University opened a long-locked room in the Payne Whitney Gymnasium and stumbled upon something shocking and disturbing. Shocking, because what he found was an enormous ca of nude photographs, thousands and thousands of photographs of young men in front, side and rear poses. Disturbing, because on closer inspection the photos looked like the record of a bizarre body-piercing ritual: sticking out from the spine of each and every body was a row of sharp metal pins. The employee who found them was mystified. The athletic director at the time, Frank Ryan, a former Cleveland Browns quarterback new to Yale, was mystified.

The book described images of unclothed but elaborately decorated Igbo women as indicating their high status as eligible brides who would not have thought of themselves as naked. In the early 20th century, tropical countries became tourist destinations.

A German tourist guide for Bali beginning in the s added to the promotion of the island as an "Eden" for Western visitors by describing the beauty of Balinese women, who were bare-breasted in everyday life and unclothed while bathing in the ocean. Soon however, the Dutch colonial administration began issuing conflicting orders regarding proper dress, which had limited effect due to some Balinese supporting tradition, others modernization.

Indigenous woman in German East Africaearly 20th century. Aboriginal people at Cape Dombey, north of Port KeatsNorthern Territory Fijian girl The locks of hair falling on her right shoulder show that she is unmarried. When she weds they will be cut.

With the opening of Japan to European visitors in the Meiji erathe previously normal states of undress, and the custom of mixed public bathing, became an issue for leaders concerned with Japan's international reputation. A law was established with fines for those that violated the ban on undress. Although often ignored or circumvented, the law had the effect of sexualizing the naked body in situations that had not previously been erotic. Nudism in German Freikorperkultur"free body culture" originated in Europe in the late 19th century as part of working class opposition to industrialization.

Nudism spawned a proselytizing literature in the s and s. Nudism's other common name, naturism, signals its core contention that the naked body is natural and that modesty and shame are cultural impositions with deleterious effects on psychological, sexual, and social well-being.

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Nudism was in dialogue with early sexology and feminism in a critique of society and its future. In the early 20th century, the attitudes of the general public toward the human body reflected rising consumerism, concerns regarding health and fitness, and changes in clothing fashions that sexualized the body. However, members of English families report that in the s to s they never saw other family members undressed, including those of the same gender.

Modesty continued to prevail between married couples, even during sex. Bodily modesty is not part of the Finnish identity due to the universal use of the sauna, a historical tradition that has been maintained, which teas from an early age that nakedness need not have anything to do with sex. From to men in the UK and America were required to wear suits that covered the upper torso when swimming in public. Early swimsuits made of knitted wool made swimming difficult. In Germany between and nudist attitudes toward the body were expressed in sports and in the arts.

In the s a number of solo female dancers performed in the nude. Adoree Villany performed the Dance of the Seven Veilsand other stories based upon middle eastern themes, for appreciative upper class audiences. Eventually acquitted, she was forced to leave Bavaria.

Adolf Koch founded thirteen Freikorperkultur FKK schools. The bourgeoisie were not ideological, while the socialists adopted the views of Adolf Koch, seeing education and health programs including nudity as part of improving the lives of the working class. While not unanimous in their support, some Nazis used nudity to extol the Aryan race as the standard of beauty, as reflected in the Nazi propaganda film Olympia directed by Leni Riefenstahl.

Public swimming pools in the US were the product of municipal reform movements beginning in the midth century. In New York City, municipal baths and pools were first opened in not only to improve the health of the inhabitants of tenementsbut to control the use of the waterfront by men and boys who violated Victorian norms by behaving boisterously and swimming nude where women might see them from passing boats.

This effort had mixed effect, with boys continuing to swim nude in rivers into the s; preferring unsupervised play to rule-bound recreation.

Initially, working-class men and boys swam in the nude, as had previously been customary in lakes and rivers. division, finding that their suits slowed them down, competed in the nude. A article on the elementary school swim program in Troy, New York stated that boys swam nude, but that girls were expected to wear bathing suits, continuing the practice of prior decades.

In the 21st century, the practice of nude swimming is largely forgotten, or even denied to have ever existed. Both hippies or other participants in the counterculture of the s embraced nudity as part of their daily routine and to emphasize their rejection of anything artificial.

Communes sometimes practiced naturism, bringing unwanted attention from disapproving neighbors. However, some traditional nudists at the time decried the trend as encouraging sexual exhibitionism and voyeurism and threatening the viability of private nudist clubs. Norms related to nudity are associated with norms regarding personal freedomhuman sexualityand gender roleswhich vary widely among contemporary societies.

Situations where public nudity is accepted vary. Some people practice nudism within the confines of " nudist camps " or clothing-optional resorts, while naturists seek more open acceptance of nudity in everyday life and in public spaces.

Historically in Western societiesthere are two cultural traditions relating to nudity in various contexts. The first tradition comes from the ancient Greeks, who saw the naked body as the natural state and as essentially positive.

The fundamental teachings of these religions prohibit public and sometimes also private nudity. The interaction between the Greek classical and later Abrahamic traditions has resulted in Western ambivalence, with nudity acquiring both positive and negative meanings in individual psychology, in social life, and in depictions such as art.

Naturism in the United States, meanwhile, remains largely confined to private facilities, with few "clothing optional" public spaces compared to Europe.

In spite of the liberalization of attitudes toward sex, Americans remain uncomfortable with complete nudity. In Africa, there is a sharp contrast between the attitude toward nudity in Islamic countries and the attitude toward nudity in certain sub-Saharan countries that never abandoned, or are reasserting, precolonial norms.

In Asia, the norms regarding public nudity are in keeping with the cultural values of social propriety and human dignity. Rather than being perceived as immoral or shameful, nakedness is perceived as a breach of etiquette and perhaps as an embarrassment. In China, saving face is a powerful social force.

In Japan, proper behavior included a tradition of mixed gender public baths before Western contact began in the 19th century, and proper attire for farmers and other workers might be a loincloth for both men and women. In India, the conventions regarding proper dress do not apply to monks in some Hindu and Jain sects who reject clothing as worldly. The encounter between the indigenous cultures of Africa, the Americas and Oceania with Europeans had a significant effect on both cultures.

Acharya Vidyasagara contemporary Digambara Jain monk. Mru women working in Bangladesh. Kayapo women, Para StateBrazil. Two women of the Zo'e tribe of Para StateBrazil. Embera manPanama - A Swazi woman participating in the Umhlanga ceremony in Eswatini - Young Hamer woman in southern Ethiopia near Turmi - Himba herders the Kaokoveld desert.

In India, priests of the Digambara "skyclad" sect of Jainism and some Hindu Sadhus refrain from wearing clothing to symbolize their rejection of the material world.

Most retain their own religion, which includes elements of Buddhism and Animismas well as traditional clothing: a loincloth for men and a skirt for women.

In sub-Saharan Africafull or partial nudity is observed among some Burkinabese and Nilo-Saharan e. Nuba and Surma people -during particular occasions; for example, stick-fighting tournaments in Ethiopia.

In Brazilthe Yawalapiti -an indigenous Xingu tribe in the Amazon Basin -practice a funeral ritual known as Quarup to celebrate life, death and rebirth.

The ritual involves the presentation of all young girls who have begun menstruating since the last Quarup and whose time has come to choose a partner. This minimalist dress code reflects the spirit of the hunt and being overdressed may be considered ridiculous or inappropriate. In Western cultures, shame can result from not living up to the ideals of society with regard to physical appearance.

Historically, such shame has affected women more than men. With regard to their naked bodies, the result is a tendency toward self-criticism by women, while men are less concerned by the evaluation of others.

In much of the world, the modesty of women is a matter not only of social custom but of the legal definition of indecent exposure. In the United States, the exposure of female nipples is a criminal offense in many states and is not usually allowed in public. The " topfreedom " movement promotes equal rights for women to be naked above the waist in public on the same basis that would apply to men in the same circumstances. The law in New York State was challenged in by nine women who exposed their breasts in a public park, which led to nine years of litigation culminating with an opinion by the Court of Appeals that overturned the convictions on the basis of the women's actions not being lewd, rather than overturning the law on the basis of equal protectionwhich is what the women sought.

While the decision gave women more freedom to be top-free e. while sunbathingit did not give them equality with men. Other court decisions have given individuals the right to be briefly nude in public as a form of expression protected by the First Amendment, but not on a continuing basis for their own enjoyment. Breastfeeding in public is forbidden in some jurisdictionsnot regulated in others, and protected as a legal right in public and the workplace in still others.

Where public breastfeeding is a legal right, some mothers may be reluctant to breastfee and some people may object to the practice. The social context defines the cultural meaning of nudity that may range from the sacred to the profane. The nudity of the ancient Olympics was part of a religious practice. In other contexts athletic activities are appreciated for the beauty of bodies in motion as in dancebut in the modern media athletic bodies are often taken out of context to become purely sexual, perhaps pornographic.

Although nudity is linked to sexuality there is also recognition of situations in which nakedness or minimal clothing is non-sexual. These include bathing, changing clothes, medical treatment or examination, and strenuous physical activity. The sexual nature of these situations is defined by the gaze of others. In the United States in the s and s, the number of non-sexual contexts for nudity expanded to include both social practices such as streaking or nude beas and acceptance of nudity in the arts.

In the 21st century, many of these situations have become sexualized.

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Studies of naturism find that its practitioners adopt behaviors and norms that suppress the sexual responses while practicing social nudity. High and low context cultures were defined by Edward T. The behaviors and norms of a high context culture depend upon shared implicit intuitions that operate within a social situation, while in a low context culture behavior is more dependent upon explicit communications.

Germans are extremely low in cultural context. They are characterized by individualism, alienation, estrangement from other people, little body contact, low sensitivity to nonverbal cues, and segmentation of time and space. By contrast, the French, in their personal lives, are relatively high context: they interact within closely knit groups, they are sensitive to nonverbal cues, and they engage in relatively high amounts of body contact.

To maintain public propriety on a nude beach, German naturists avoided touching themselves and others and avoid any adornments or behaviors that would call attention to the body. French naturists, on the other hand, were more likely than Germans to wear make-up and jewelry and to touch others as they would while dressed. Societies in continental Europe conceive of privacy as protecting a right to respect and personal dignity. In America, the right to privacy is oriented toward values of liberty, especially in one's home.

Europeans maintain their dignity, even naked where others may see them, including sunbathing in urban parks. Americans see public nakedness as a surrender of "any reasonable expectation of privacy ".

Such cultural differences may make some laws and behaviors of other societies seem incomprehensible, since each culture assumes that their own concepts of privacy are intuitiveand thus human universals. The moral ambiguity of nudity is reflected in its many meanings, often expressed in the metaphors used to describe cultural values, both positive and negative.

One of the first-but now obsolete-meanings of nude in the 16th century was "mere, plain, open, explicit" as reflected in the modern metaphors "the naked truth", "the bare facts". Naturists often speak of their nakedness in terms of a return to the innocence and simplicity of childhood. The term naturism is based upon the idea that nakedness is connected to nature in a positive way as a form of egalitarianismthat all humans are alike in their nakedness.

Nudity also represents freedom: the liberation of the body is associated with sexual liberation, although many naturists tend to downplay this connection. In some forms of group psychotherapynudity has been used to promote open interaction and communication. Religious persons who reject the world as it is including all possessions may practice nudism, or use nakedness as a protest against an unjust world. Many of the negative associations are the inverse of positive ones.

If nudity is truth, nakedness may be an invasion of privacy or the exposure of uncomfortable truths, a source of anxiety. The strong connection of nudity to sex produces shame when naked in contexts where sexuality is deemed inappropriate. Rather than being natural, nakedness is associated with savagery, poverty, criminality, and death.

To be deprived of clothes is punishment, humiliating and degrading. Confronted with this ambiguity, some individuals seek to resolve it by working toward greater acceptance of nudity for themselves and others. The majority of naturists go through stages during which they gradually learn a new set of values regarding the human body. Shame is one of the moral emotions often associated with nudity.

While guilt is the emotion experienced in response to a particular wrong action, shame is a more general and long-lasting self-assessment. However, shame is often negative as the response to perceived failures to live up to unrealistic expectations. The shame regarding nudity is one of the classic examples of the emotion, yet rather than being a positive motivator, it is considered unhealthy, standing in the way of developing a positive self-image.

Others argue that the shame felt when naked in public is due to valuing modesty and privacy as socially positive. This state is more difficult for women in Western culture, given the social presumption that women's bodies are always being observed and judged. In a naturist environment, because everyone is naked, it becomes possible to dilute the power of social judgements and experience freedom.

The universality of shame is not supported by anthropological studies, which do not find the use of clothing to cover the genital areas in all societies, but instead the use of adornments to call attention to the sexuality of the body.

Among ancient cultures, the association of nakedness with sexual sin was peculiar to Abrahamic religions. In Mesopotamia and Egypt, nakedness was embarrassing due to the social connotations of low status and deprivation. The meaning of the naked body in JudaismChristianityand Islam was defined by a creation narrative in which Adam and Evethe first man and womanwere naked and unashamed until they ate the forbidden fruit of the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evilafter which they sought to cover their genitals.

The philosophical meaning of this myth is unclear. Was nakedness innocent before, but after gaining the forbidden knowledge, became evil?

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The feeling of shame is also problematical, since it is understood as a response to being seen by others, a social context that did not exist. As a result, the nudity of women is deemed more shameful personally and corrupting to society than the nakedness of men. Sects of Christianity through history have included nudity into worship practices, but these have been deemed heretical.

Some Hindu and Jain practitioners of asceticism reject worldly goods, including clothing, wearing only a loincloth or being naked. The National Child Traumatic Stress Network issued a report in on child sexual development in the United States. The report asserted that children have a natural curiosity about their own bodies and the bodies of others that ought to be addressed in an age-appropriate manner. According to the report:.

The report recommended that parents learn what is normal in regard to nudity and sexuality at each stage of a child's development and refrain from overreacting to their children's nudity-related behaviors unless there are signs of a problem e. anxiety, aggression, or sexual interactions between children not of the same age or stage of development. In childcare settings outside the home there is difficulty in determining what behavior is normal and what may be indicative of child sexual abuse CSA.

In an extensive study of Danish childcare institutions which had, in the prior century, been tolerant of child nudity and playing doctor found that contemporary policy had become restrictive as the result of childcare workers being charged with CSA. However, while CSA does occur, the response may be due to "moral panic" that is out of proportion with its actual frequency and over-reaction may have unintended consequences.

Strict policies are being implemented not to protect children from a rare threat, but to protect workers from the accusation of CSA. The policies have created a split between childcare workers who continue to believe that behaviors involving nudity are a normal part of child development and those that advocate that children be closely supervised to prohibit such behavior.

It is noted that modern psychology generally agrees that children can benefit from an open environment where the bodies of others their own age of both sexes are not a mystery. However, there is less agreement regarding children and adults being nude. While some doctors have taken the view that some exposure of children to adult nudity particularly parental nudity may be healthy, others-notably Benjamin Spock -disagreed.

Spock's view was later attributed to the lingering effect of Freudianism on the medical profession. In their study on the effects of social nudity on children, Smith and Sparks concluded that "the viewing of the unclothed body, far from being destructive to the psy, seems to be either benign or to actually provide positive benefits to the individuals involved".

France, Norway, the Netherlands and the United States show a broad range of openness toward nudity and sexuality as indicated by childhood experiences and sex education practices. In general, the United States remain uniquely puritanical in it moral judgements compared to other Western, developed nations. Tous a Poil! Everybody Gets Naked! In a cable news appearance, Jean-Francois Copethen leader of the political party Union for a Popular Movement UMP decried the book as undermining the dignity of persons in authority.

As part of a science program on Norwegian public television NRKa series on puberty intended for 8-year-olds includes explicit information and images of reproduction, anatomy, and the changes that are normal with the approach of puberty. Rather than diagrams or photos, the videos were shot in a locker room with live nude people of all ages. The presenter, a physician, is relaxed about close examination and touching of relevant body parts, including genitals. While the videos note that the age of consent in Norway is 16, abstinence is not emphasized.

In a subsequent series for teens and young adults, real people were recruited to have sex on TV as counterbalance to the unrealistic presentations in advertising and porn. As of7 U. states required that sex education curricula include lessons on abstinence and 25 required that a "just say no" approach be stressed. Studies show that early and complete sex education does not increase the likelihood of becoming sexually active, but leads to better health outcomes overall.

Young children often play outdoors or in public wading pools nude. In a survey of predominantly white middle-class college students in the United States, only 9. Many were accidental walking in on someone and were more likely to be remembered as negative by women.

Only 4. A majority of both women A report issued by the CDC comparing the sexual health of teens in France, Germany, the Netherlands and the United States concluded that if the US implemented comprehensive sex education similar to the three European countries there would be a significant reduction in teen pregnancies, abortions and the rate of sexually transmitted diseases, and save hundreds of millions of dollars. InGordon and Schroeder contended that "there is nothing inherently wrong with bathing with children or otherwise appearing naked in front of them", noting that doing so may provide an opportunity for parents to provide important information.

They noted that by ages five to six, children begin to develop a sense of modesty, and recommended to parents who desire to be sensitive to their children's wishes that they respect a child's modesty from that age onwards. In a article for the New York Times "Home" section, Julie Scelfo interviewed parents regarding the nudity of small children at home in situations which might include visitors outside the immediate household.

The situations ranged from a three-year-old being naked at a large gathering to the use of a backyard swim pool becoming an issue when the children of disapproving neighbors participated.

While the consensus was to allow kids to be kids up to the age of five, there was acknowledgment of the possible discomfort of adults who consider such behavior to be inappropriate. While opponents of child nudity referred to the danger of pedophilia, proponents viewed innocent nudity as beneficial compared to the sexualization of children in toddler beauty pageants with makeup and "sexy" outfits. Recreational swim in the Greenbrier RiverWest Virginia Bathing in the center of East BerlinEast Germany A nude family at Lake Senftenberg in East Germany s.

In some situations, nudity is forced on a person. For example, imposed nudity full or partial can be part of a corporal punishment or as humiliationespecially when administered in public. For example, instudents at a girls' school in the north-east Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh were forced to undress as a form of punishment, police say.

Although not as common as corporal punishment, it is not unusual for stripping to be used as a form of punishment in Indian schools. Nazis used forced nudity to attempt to humiliate inmates in concentration camps. This practice was depicted in the film Schindler's List InAbu Ghraib prison in Baghda Iraq gained international notoriety for accounts of torture and abuses by members of the United States Army Reserve during the post-invasion period.

Photographic images were circulated that showed the posing of prisoners naked, sometimes bound, and being intimidated and otherwise humiliated, resulting in widespread condemnation of the abuse. A strip search is the removal of some or all of a person's clothing to ensure that they do not have weapons or contraband. Such sears are generally done when an individual is imprisoned after an arrest, and is justified by the need to maintain order in the facility, not as punishment for a crime.

Worldwide, laws regarding clothing specify what parts of the body must be covered, prohibiting complete nudity in public except for those jurisdictions that allow nude recreation. Specific laws may either require or prohibit religious attire veiling for women. In a survey using data from tothere were 11 majority Muslim countries where women must cover their entire bodies in public, which may include the face.

There were 9 countries, mostly in Europe, that had some prohibition of religious attire, in particular face coverings in certain situations, such as government buildings. Within Russia, laws may either require or prohibit veiling depending upon location. The brief, sudden exposure of parts of the body normally hidden from public view has a long tradition, taking several forms. In the United Kingdom, nudity may not be used to "harass, alarm or distress" according to the Public Order Act of Most naturists comply with the law by being nude only where others cannot see them.

His claim was ultimately rejected. In the United States, public nudity is a matter of local laws with the exception of First Amendment protection of free expression, which is generally recognized with regard to performances in an artistic context.

However, in Barnes v. Glen Theatre, Inc. the owner of a bar and an adult bookstore in South Bend, Indiana sought to overturn the state law prohibiting "indecent behavior". The US Supreme Court upheld the Indiana law, but with difference in opinion between justices.

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Since regulation of everyday public behavior is more often a matter of social convention than written law, some jurisdictions may have no specific law against nudity in public.

This was the case inwhen three young men who had been skinny-dipping outside Brattleboro, Vermont decided to go into town to see what would happen if they disrobed there. They were not arrested, and the following two summers saw a number of incidents of public nakedness until an ordinance banning nudity was passed. In the 21st century in the United States, the legal definition of "full nudity" is exposure of the genitals. Where the law has been challenged by asserting that nudity by itself in not lewd or disorderly, laws have been amended to specify indecent exposure, usually of the genitals but not always of the breast.

Public indecency is generally a misdemeanorbut may become a felony upon repeated offense or always if done in the presence of a minor. In the state of Oregon, public nudity is legal and protected as free speech as long as there is not an "intent to arouse". After incidents in July of ticketing women for sunbathing topless, the Minneapolis Parks board moved to change the regulation that prohibits the exposure of female breasts on park property, which is legal elsewhere in the city and the state of Minnesota.

Some tickets were issued when sunbathers were spotted in isolated areas by drones with cameras. Nudity is used to draw public attention to a cause, sometimes including the promotion of public nudity itself.

Particular issues represented include animal rights by the group PETAenvironmental issues by the World Naked Bike Rideand women's rights by the organization FEMEN. Bathing for cleanliness and recreation is a human universal, and the communal use of bathing facilities has been maintained in many cultures from varying traditional sources.

When there is complete nudity, the facilities are often segregated by sex, but not always. The sauna is attended nude in its source country of Finlan where many families have one in their home, and is one of the defining characteristics of Finnish identity. For example, the Friedrichsbad in Baden-Baden has designated times when mixed nude bathing is permitted. The German sauna culture also became popular in neighbouring countries such as Switzerlan Belgiumthe Netherlands and Luxembourg.

The sauna came to the United States in the 19th century when Finns settled in western territories, building family saunas on their farms. When public saunas were built in the 20th century, they might include separate steam rooms for men and women.

In Japan, public baths Sento were once common, but became less so with the addition of bathtubs in homes. Sento were mixed gender konyoku until the arrival of Western influences, [46] but became segregated by gender in cities. In Koreabathhouses are known as Jjimjilbang. Such facilities may include mixed-sex sauna areas where clothing is worn, but bathing areas are gender segregated; nudity is required in those areas.

In addition to the health benefits, a woman wrote in - theolivebranchinn.com suggesting the social benefits for women and girls having real life experience of seeing the variety of real female bodies-even more naked than at a beach-as a counterbalance to the unrealistic nudity seen in popular media.

In Russiapublic banyas are clothing-optional and are usually gender-segregated. According to a U. Historically, certain facilities associated with activities that require partial or complete nakedness, such as bathing or changing clothes, have limited access to certain members of the public. These normal activities are guided by generally accepted norms, the first of which is that the facilities are most often segregated by gender; however, this may not be the case in all cultures.

Changing rooms may be provided in stores, workplaces, or sports facilities to allow people to change their clothing. Some changing rooms have individual cubicles or stalls affording varying degrees of privacy. Locker rooms and communal showers associated with sports generally lacked any individual space, thus providing minimal physical privacy.

The men's locker room-which historically in Western cultures had been a setting for open male social nudity-is, in the 21st century United States, becoming a space of modesty and distancing between men.

For much of the 20th century, the norm in locker rooms had been for men to undress completely without embarrassment. That norm has changed; in the 21st century, men typically wear towels or other garments in the locker room most of the time and avoid any interaction with others while naked. This shift is the result of changes in social norms regarding masculinity and how maleness is publicly expressed; also, open male nudity has become associated with homosexuality.

By the s, communal showers in American schools had become "uncomfortable", not only because students were accustomed to more privacy at home, but because young people became more self-conscious based upon the comparison to mass media images of perfect bodies.

The change also addresses issues of transgender usage and family use when one parent accompanies children of differing gender. Other studies indicate that not showering, while often related to being naked with peers, is also related to lower intensity of physical activity and involvement in sports.

This shift in attitudes has come to societies historically open to nudity. In Denmark, secondary school students are now avoiding showering after gym classes. In interviews, students cited the lack of privacy, fears of being judged by idealized standards, and the possibility of being photographed while naked.

Attitudes toward public nudity vary depending on culture, time, location, and context. There are particular contexts in which nudity is tolerated, accepted, or even encouraged in public spaces. In Europe, such contexts include nude beaswithin some intentional communities such as naturist resorts or clubs and at special events.

Such special events can be understood by expanding the historical concept of Carnivalwhere otherwise transgressive behaviors are allowed on particular occasions, to include other mass nudity public events. Examples include the Solstice Swim in Tasmania part of the Dark Mofo festival and World Naked Bike Rides. Germany is known for being tolerant of public nudity in many situations. In the United States inthe city council of San FranciscoCalifornia, banned public nudity in the inner-city area.

This move was met by harsh resistance because the city was known for its liberal culture and had previously tolerated public nudity. Naturism or nudism is a subculture advocating and defending private and public nudity as part of a simple, natural lifestyle.

Naturists reject contemporary standards of modesty that discourage personal, family and social nudity. They instead seek to create a social environment where individuals feel comfortable being in the company of nude people and being seen nude, either by other naturists or by the general public. The social sciences, until the middle of the 20th century, often studied public nakedness, including naturism, in the context of deviance or criminality.

A nude beach, sometimes called a clothing-optional or free beach, is a beach where users are at liberty to be nude. Such beas are usually on public lands. Nude beas may be official legally sanctione unofficial tolerated by residents and law enforcementor illegal but so isolated as to escape enforcement. In a picture-making civilization, pictorial conventions continually reaffirm what is natural in human appearance, which is part of socialization.

In Western societies, the contexts for depictions of nudity include informationart and pornography.

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Any ambiguous image not easily fitting into one of these categories may be misinterpreted, leading to disputes. The nude human figure has been one of the subjects of art from its Paleolithic beginnings, and a major preoccupation of Western art since the ancient Greeks. In The Nude: a Study in Ideal FormLord Kenneth Clark states that to be naked is to be deprived of clothes, and implies embarrassment and shame, while a nude, as a work of art, has no such connotations.

Distinct from the nude artworks created, sessions where artists work from live models are a social situation where nudity has a long tradition. The role of the model both as part of visual art education and in the creation of finished works has evolved since antiquity in Western societies and worldwide wherever western cultural practices in the visual arts have been adopted. At modern universities, art schools, and community groups " art model " is a job, one requirement of which is to pose "undraped" and motionless for minutes, hours with breaks or resuming the same pose for days as the artwork requires.

Photography of groups of nude people in public places has been done around the world with or without official cooperation. The gathering itself is proposed as performance art, while the resulting images become statements based upon the identities of the people posing and the location selected: urban, scenic landscapes, or sites of historical significance.

The photographers including Spencer Tunick and Henning von Berg state a variety of artistic, cultural, and political reasons for their work, while those being photographed may be professional models or unpaid volunteers attracted to the project for personal reasons. Limits on the depiction of nudity are based upon the legal definitions of indecency and obscenity. Inthe Supreme Court in Miller v. California established the three-tiered Miller test to determine what was obscene and thus not protected versus what was merely erotic and thus protected by the First Amendment.

Depictions of child nudity or of children with nude adults appear in works of art in various cultures and historical periods. These attitudes have changed over time and have become increasingly frowned upon, especially in the case of photography. During the years when film was developed by commercial photo labs, snapshots taken by parents of their nude infant or toddler children were reported to the police as possible child pornography.

Nudity may be used as a part of live performances, such as dance, theater, performance art and nude body painting. Danceas a sequence of human movement, may be ceremonialsocial or one of the performing arts. Partial or complete nudity is a feature of ceremonial dances in some tropical countries.

However, some claim that modern practices may be used to promote "ethnic tourism" rather than to revive authentic traditions. Models posing on stage nude was a feature of tableaux vivants at London's Windmill Theatre and New York's Ziegfeld Follies in the early 20th century. By nudity was freely employed by playwrights, directors and producers not only on subjects of sexuality but regarding social injustice and war. A well-known performance that included nudity was the Broadway musical Hair in The nudity in Hair was benign compared to later productions.

Dionysus in 69a modern version of The Bacchaeincluded a chorus of nude and partially nude actors who staged a birth ritual and interacted with the audience. Public performances that have the intent of arousing the erotic interest of an audience have an indeterminate history, generally associated with prostitution. The striptease did not end with performers entirely nude until the twentieth century, but has since evolved into the live sex show.

Redirected from Naked girls. Several terms redirect here. For other uses, see Nude disambiguationNaked disambiguation and Birthday suit disambiguation. For the preference for nudity in non-sexualized social settings, see Naturism. Main article: History of nudity. Main article: Human evolution. Main article: History of clothing and textiles. See also: Body modification. See also: Historical race concepts. Early 20th century photography of Indigenous peoples of Africa and Oceania.

Four Masai tribesmen, c. Three Igbo women in the early 20th century. See also: Baths and spas. Indigenous dress. See also: Sex differences in humansBreast Society and cultureand Topfreedom in the United States. Main article: Nudity and sexuality. See also: Sexual attraction and Physical attractiveness. See also: Naturism in Germany and Naturism in France. See also: Nudity in religion and Ritual purification. See also: Child sexuality and Puberty. Cultural differences in childhood nudity.

Fountain in Israel between and See also: Pantsing. Main article: Strip search. Main articles: Indecent exposure and Clothing laws by country.

Main article: Nudity and protest. See also: Sauna and Bathing. Further information: Changing room and Communal shower. See also: Nude recreation and Issues in social nudity. Main article: Naturism. Main article: Nude beach. See also: Nude swimming.

Further information: List of places where social nudity is practised. See also: AfricaAsiaEuropeOceaniaNorth Americaand South America. Main article: Depictions of nudity. See also: Nudity in film and Nudity in American television. Main article: Nude art. See also: Pornography. Human sexuality portal Nudity portal. Bemerkenswert ist, dass dort heute zumeist auf getrennte Badezeiten fur Manner und Frauen verzichtet wird.

Nacktheit von Mann und Frau in der Sauna wird hier langst akzeptiert und das hat ein positives soziales Gesamtklima erzeugt, das selbstregulierend - die seltenen Ausnahmen bestatigen die Regel - das Verhalten der Badegaste bestimmt. Verpohnt ist der Versuch, sich in Badekleidung unter die Nackten zu misn". It is noteworthy that today there is usually no separate bathing times for men and women. Nakedness of men and women in the sauna has been accepted for a long time and that has created a positive overall social climate.

Self-regulation - the rare exceptions confirm the rule - determines the behavior of the bathers.

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Al Unser and Al Unser, Jr. Elderkin went "up and down the East Coast trying to peddle them" to places like Harvard and Columbia, which once welcomed Sheldon but now wanted nothing to do with nude photos and the controversy trailing them. We already burned the ones we had. BEFORE WE PROCEED TO the location of the treasure itself, it might be wise to pause and ponder the wisdom of opening such a Pandora's box.

With scholars like Hersey alleging eugenic motives behind Sheldon's project, with the self-images of so many of the cultural elite at stake, would exposure of the hidden hoard be defensible? Is there anyone, aside from lifelong Sheldon disciples, who will step forward to defend Sheldon's posture photos? The word 'ectomorph' is used repeatedly in 'Sexual Personae' about Spenser's Apollonian angels.

That's one of the things I'm trying to do: to reconsider these classification smes, to rescue them from their tainting by Nazi ideology. It's always been a part of classicism. It's sort of like we've lost the old curiosity about physical characteristics, physical differences.

And I maintain it's bourgeois prudery. I'm interested in looking at men's penises! I maintain that at the present date, Penthouse, Playboy, Hustler, serve the same cultural functions as the posture photos.

About Press Copyright Contact us Creators Advertise Developers Terms Privacy Policy & Safety How YouTube works Test new features Press Copyright Contact us Creators The latest tweets from @pennyfenmore Nudity is a state of being in which a human is not wearing clothing or specifically is not covering the genitals. In some societies, partial nudity is defined as not covering other parts of the body that are deemed to be sexual. Worldwide, current social norms vary from banning nudity except in complete privacy to the acceptance of public nudity as a natural human state

With these words ringing in my ears, I set out to see if I could open up the Sheldon archives. THE SECRET IS BARED. Down a dimly lit back corridor of the National Museum of Natural History in Washington, far from the dinosaur displays, is a branch of the Smithsonian not well known to the public: the National Anthropological Archives. Although it contains a rich and strange assortment of archival treasures, it's particularly notable for the number of Native Americans who travel here to investigate centuries-old anthropological records, poring over them in a cramped, windowless research room whose walls are hung with stylized illustrations of tribal rituals painted by one Chief Blue Eagle.

It was here that my quest for another kind of tribal illustration - the taboo images of the blue-blood tribe, the long-lost nude posture photos - culminated at last.

Inthe curators of the National Anthropological Archives acquired the remains of Sheldon's life work, which were gathering dust in "dead storage" in a Goodwill warehouse in Boston. While there were solid archival reasons for making the acquisition, the curators are clearly aware that they harbor some potentially explosive material in their storage rooms. And they did not make it easy for me to gain access.

On my first visit, I was informed by a good-natured but wary supervisor that the restrictive grant of Sheldon's materials by his estate would permit me to review only the written materials in the Sheldon archives. The actual photographs, he said, were off-limits. To see them, I would have to petition the chief of archivists.

Determined to pursue the matter to the bitter end, I began the process of applying for permission. Meanwhile, I plunged into the written material hoping to find answers to several unresolved mysteries. Although I did not find substantiation in those files for Hersey's belief that Sheldon was actively engaged in a master-race eugenic project, I did find stunning confirmation of Hersey's charge that Sheldon held racist views.

In Box 4 I came across a document never referred to in any of the literature on Sheldon I'd seen. It was a faded offprint of a Sheldon study, "The Intelligence of Mexican Children. To the author of such sentiments, America's elite institutions entrusted their student bodies. Another box held clues to the truth behind Nora Ephron's tale about smoking and organ size. It turned out to be true that a research arm of the tobacco industry had sponsored studies on the relationship between masculinity and smoking, and that the studies had involved Sheldonian posture photos of Harvard men - although there is no evidence that the criterion of masculinity was the "obvious one" referred to by Ephron.

I located a fascinating report on this research in a December issue of the respected journal Science, a report titled "Masculinity and Smoking. If, in fact, heavy smokers looked more like Harvard nerds than Marlboro men, why not use advertising imagery to make Harvard nerds feel like virile cowboys when they smoked?

Finally and most telling, I found a letter nearly four decades old that did something nothing else in the files did. It gave a glimpse, a clue to the feelings of the subjects of Sheldon's research, particularly the women. I found the letter in a file of correspondence between Sheldon and various phys ed directors at women's colleges who were providing Sheldon with bodies for the ill-fated "Atlas of Women.

Something had apparently gone wrong with the technical side of the earlier shoot. But the official refused to allow Sheldon to reshoot the women, declaring that "to require them to pose for another [ nude posture photo ] would create insurmountable psychological problems. Insurmountable psychological problems. Suddenly the subjects of Sheldon's photography leaped into the foreground: the shy girl, the fat girl, the religiously conservative, the victim of inappropriate parental attention.

Here, perhaps, Naomi Wolf has a point. In a culture that already encourages women to scrutinize their bodies critically, the first thing that happens to these women when they arrive at college is an intrusive, uncomfortable, public examination of their nude bodies.

THREE MONTHS LATER, I FINALLY SUCCEEDED IN gaining permission to study the elusive posture photos. As I sat at my desk in the reading room, under a portrait of Chief Blue Eagle, the long-sought ca materialized. A curator trundled in a library cart from the storage facility. Teetering on top of the cart were stacks of big, gray cardboard boxes. The curator handed me a pair of the white cotton gloves that researrs must use to handle archival material.

Full length views of nude freshmen men, front, back and rear. Includes weight, height, previous or maximum weight, with age, name, or initials. Made in Full length views of nude women, front, back and rear. Includes height, weight, date and age. Includes some photographs marked S. Among the other classes listed in the Finder's Aid were: the Yale classes of '50, '6, '64, '66 and '71; the Princeton class of '52; Smith '50 and '52; Vassar '42 and '52; Mount Holyoke '5; Swarthmore '51; University of California '61 and '67; Hotchkiss '71; Syracuse '50; University of Wisconsin '5; Purdue '5; University of Pennsylvania '51, and Brooklyn College '51 and ' There were also undated photos from the Oregon Hospital for the Criminally Insane which I could not distinguish in any way from the Ivy League photos.

All told, there were some 20, photographs of men - 9, from Yale - and 7, of women. In flipping through those thousands of images which were recently transferred to Smithsonian archives in Suitland, Md. It took awhile for the "problems" to become apparent, because, as it turned out, I was not permitted to see positive photographs - only negatives with no names attad.

A fascinating distinction was being exhibited here, a kind of light-polarity theory of prurience and privacy that absolves the negative image of the naked body of whatever transgressive power it might have in a positive print. There's an intuitive logic to the theory, although here the Sheldon posture-photo phenomenon exposes how fragile are the distinctions we make between the sanctioned and the forbidden images of the body.

As I thumbed rapidly through box after box to confirm that the entries described in the Finder's Aid were actually there, I tried to glance at only the faces. It was a decision that paid off, because it was in them that a crucial difference between the men and the women revealed itself. For the most part, the men looked diffident, oblivious. That's not surprising considering that men of that era were accustomed to undressing for draft physicals and athletic-squad weigh-ins.

But the faces of the women were another story. I was surprised at how many looked deeply unhappy, as if pained at being subjected to this procedure. On the faces of quite a few I saw what looked like grimaces, reflecting pronounced discomfort, perhaps even anger. I was not much more comfortable myself sitting there in the midst of stacks of boxes of such images. There I was at the end of my quest. I'd tracked down the fabled photographs, but the lessons of the posture-photo ritual were elusive.

One should think of the many times where some woman becomes prominent like Marilyn Monroe and suddenly there are nude pictures in her past. Shouldn't we be a little less condemning of someone in that position? A little less condemning of the victims, yes, certainly. I speak as one myself, although it turned out that my photo was burned in the Yale bonfire of the late 70's.

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But what about the perpetrators? What could have possessed so many elite institutions of higher education to turn their student bodies over to the practitioners of what now seems so dubious a science project? It's a question that baffles the current powers that be at Ivy League schools. The response of Gary Fryer, Yale's spokesman, is representative: "We seard, but there's nobody around now who was involved with the decision.

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In other words, "We won't get fooled again. Sheldon's dream of reducing the complexity of human personality and the contingency of human fate to a single number is a recurrent one, as the continuing I. controversy demonstrates. And a reminder that skepticism is still valuable in the face of scientific claims of certainty, particularly in the slippery realms of human behavior.

The rise and fall of "sciences" like Marxist history, Freudian psychology and Keynesian economics suggests that at least some of the beliefs and axioms treated as science today Rorschach analysis, "rational choice" economics, perhaps will turn out to have little more validity than nude stick-pin somatotyping.

In the Sheldon rituals, the student test subjects were naked - but it was the emperors of scientific certainty who had no clothes. THE GREAT IVY LEAGUE NUDE POSTURE PHOTO SCANDAL. See the article in its original context from January 15,Section 6, Page 26 Buy Reprints. View on timesmachine.



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