The ethnic group's native language is Pashto , an Iranian language on the Indo-Iranian branch, itself a branch of the larger Indo-European language family. Additionally, the vast majority [ citation needed ] of ethnic Pashtuns in Afghanistan speak the Dari  [ irrelevant citation ] dialect of Persian as a second language  [ irrelevant citation ] , while those in the Indian subcontinent speak Hindi-Urdu as their second language. The total number of Pashtuns is estimated to be around 6 million; however, this figure is disputed because of the lack of an official census in Afghanistan since Pashtuns are native to the land comprising southern Afghanistan and northwestern Pakistan which is occasionally referred to as the Pashtunistan region , which is where the majority of the population resides. Significant and historical communities of the Pashtun diaspora exist in the Sindh and Punjab provinces of Pakistan particularly in the cities of Karachi and Lahore and in the Rohilkhand region of the Uttar Pradesh state in India as well as in major cities such as Delhi and Mumbai. A recent diaspora has formed in the Arab states of the Persian Gulf primarily in the United Arab Emirates as part of the larger South Asian diaspora.
Pashto is classified under the Eastern Iranian sub-branch of the Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. Those who speak a Southern dialect of Pashto refer to themselves as Pashtuns, while those who speak Northern Dialect call themselves Pukhtuns.
These native people compose the core of ethnic Pashtuns who are found in southeastern Afghanistan and western Pakistan. The Pashtuns have oral and written accounts of their family tree. Lineage is considered very important. Some anthropologists lend credence to the oral traditions of the Pashtun tribes themselves.
For example, according to the Encyclopaedia of Islamthe theory of Pashtun descent from Israelites is traced to Nimat Allah al-Harawiwho compiled a history for Khan-e-Jehan Lodhi in the reign of Mughal Emperor Jehangir in the 17th century.
Historian Andre Wink suggests that the story "may contain a clue to the remarkable theory of the Jewish origin of some of the Afghan tribes which is persistently advocated in the Persian-Afghan chronicles. There have been many legends over the centuries of descent from the Ten Lost Tribes after groups converted to Christianity and Islam.
Hence the tribal name Yusufzai in Pashto translates to the "son of Joseph". A similar story is told by many historians, including the 14th century Ibn Battuta and 16th century Ferishta. One conflicting issue in the belief that the Pashtuns descend from the Israelites is that the Ten Lost Tribes were exiled by the ruler of Assyriawhile Maghzan-e-Afghani says they were permitted by the ruler to go east to Afghanistan.
This inconsistency can be explained by the fact that Persia acquired the lands of the ancient Assyrian Empire when it conquered the Empire of the Medes and Chaldean Babyloniawhich had conquered Assyria decades earlier. But no ancient author mentions such a transfer of Israelites further east, or no ancient extra-Biblical texts refer to the Ten Lost Tribes at all. Some Afghan historians have maintained that Pashtuns are linked to the ancient Israelites. Mohan Lal quoted Mountstuart Elphinstone who wrote:.
if we consider the easy way with which all rude nations receive accounts favourable to their own antiquity, I fear we much class the descents of the Afghans from the Jews with that of the Romans and the British from the Trojans, and that of the Irish from the Milesians or Brahmins. This theory has been criticised by not being substantiated by historical evidence. Zaman Stanizai criticises this theory:. A claim that is full of logical inconsistencies and historical incongruities, and stands in stark contrast to the conclusive evidence of the Indo-Iranian origin of Pashtuns supported by the incontrovertible DNA sequencing that the genome analysis revealed scientifically.
Although Greeks and Jews have been proposed as ancestors to Pathans, their genetic origin remains ambiguous Overall, Ashkenazi Jews exhibit a frequency of Some Pashtun tribes claim descent from Arabsincluding some claiming to be Sayyids descendants of Muhammad.
One historical account connects the Pashtuns to a possible Ancient Egyptian past but this lacks supporting evidence. Henry Walter Bellew was of the view that the Pashtuns likely have mixed Greek and Rajput roots. Their modern past strets back to the Delhi Sultanateparticularly the Hotak dynasty and the Durrani Empire. The Hotaks were Ghilji tribesmen who rebelled against the Safavids and seized control over much of Persia from to He created the last Afghan empire that covered most of what is now Afghanistan, Pakistan, KashmirIndian Punjabas well as the Kohistan and Khorasan provinces of Iran.
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Specifically, the Mohamedzai subclan held Afghanistan's monarchy from around to the end of Zahir Shah 's reign in Former President Hamid Karzai is from the Popalzai tribe of Kandahar. The Pashtuns in Afghanistan resisted British designs upon their territory and kept the Russians at bay during the so-called Great Game.
By playing the two super powers against each other, Afghanistan remained an independent sovereign state and maintained some autonomy see the Siege of Malakand. But during the reign of Abdur Rahman Khan -Pashtun regions were politically divided by the Durand Lineand what is today western Pakistan was claimed by British in In the 20th century, many politically active Pashtun leaders living under British rule of undivided India supported Indian independenceincluding Ashfaqulla KhanAbdul Samad Khan AchakzaiAjmal KhattakBacha Khan and his son Wali Khan both members of the Khudai Khidmatgarand were inspired by Mohandas Gandhi 's non-violent method of resistance.
The Pashtuns of Afghanistan attained complete independence from British political intervention during the reign of Amanullah Khanfollowing the Third Anglo-Afghan War. By the s a popular call for Pashtunistan began to be heard in Afghanistan and the new state of Pakistan.
This led to bad relations between the two nations. The Afghan monarchy ended when President Daoud Khan seized control of Afghanistan from his cousin Zahir Shah inwhich opened doors for a proxy war by neighbors and the rise of Marxism. In AprilDaoud Khan was assassinated along with his family and relatives. Mujahideen commanders began being recruited in neighboring Pakistan for a guerrilla warfare against the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan.
Inthe Soviet Union invaded its southern neighbor Afghanistan in order to defeat a rising insurgency. The mujahideen were funded by the United States, Saudi Arabia, Iran and others, and included some Pashtun commanders such as Gulbuddin Hekmatyar and Jalaluddin Haqqaniwho are currently waging an insurgency against the Islamic republic of Afghanistan and the US-led Resolute Support Mission.
In the meantime, millions of Pashtuns fled their native land to live among other Afghan diaspora in Pakistan and Iranand from there tens of thousands proceeded to North America, the European Unionthe Middle East, Australia and other parts of the world.
In the late s, Pashtuns became known for being the primary ethnic group comprised by the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan Taliban regime. Among them were Abdullah AbdullahAbdul Qadir and his brother Abdul HaqAbdul Rasul SayyafAsadullah Khali Hamid Karzai and Gul Agha Sherzai.
The Taliban regime was ousted in late during the US-led War in Afghanistan and replaced with the Karzai administration. Many high-ranking government officials in Afghanistan are Pashtuns, including: Zalmay RasoulAbdul Rahim WardakOmar ZakhilwalGhulam Farooq WardakAnwar ul-Haq AhadyYousef Pashtun and Amirzai Sangin.
The list of current governors of Afghanistanas well as the parliamentarians in the House of the People and House of Eldersinclude large percentage of Pashtuns.
The Chief of staff of the Afghan National ArmySher Mohammad Karimiand Commander of the Afghan Air ForceMohammad Dawranas well as Chief Justice of Afghanistan Abdul Salam Azimi and Attorney General Mohammad Ishaq Aloko also belong to the Pashtun ethnic group.
Pashtuns not only played an important role in South Asia but also in Central Asia and the Middle East. Many of the non-Pashtun groups in Afghanistan have adopted the Pashtun culture and use Pashto as a second language. For example, many leaders of non-Pashtun ethnic groups in Afghanistan practice Pashtunwali to some degree and are fluent in Pashto language.
These include Ahmad Shah Massou Ismail KhanMohammed FahimBismillah Khan Mohammadiand many others. The Afghan royal familywhich was represented by King Zahir Shah, belongs to the Mohammadzai tribe of Pashtuns.
Other prominent Pashtuns include the 17th-century poets Khushal Khan Khattak and Rahman Babaand in contemporary era Afghan Astronaut Abdul Ahad Mohman former U. Ambassador to the United Nations Zalmay Khalilza and Ashraf Ghani Ahmadzai among many others.
Many Pashtuns of Pakistan and India have adopted non-Pashtun cultures, and learned other languages such as UrduPunjabiand Hindko. Many more held high government posts, such as Fazal-ur-RehmanAsfandyar Wali KhanMahmood Khan AchakzaiSirajul Haqand Aftab Ahmad Sherpaowho are presidents of their respective political parties in Pakistan. Others became famous in sports e. Malala Yousafzaiwho became the youngest Nobel Peace Prize recipient inis a Pakistani Pashtun.
Many of the Bollywood film stars in India have Pashtun ancestry; some of the most notable ones are Aamir KhanShahrukh KhanSalman KhanFeroz KhanMadhubalaKader KhanSaif Ali KhanSoha Ali KhanSara Ali Khanand Zarine Khan. In addition, one of India's former presidents, Zakir Hussainbelonged to the Afridi tribe.
According to a study from called "Afghanistan from a Y-chromosome perspective," the study from a sample size of showed R1a1a-M to be the most dominant haplogroup in Pashtuns at This subclade is also predominantly present among Tajik, Turkmen, Uzbek, and Bashkir ethnic groups.
Haplogroup G2c-M reas It is virtually absent from all other Afghan populations. This haplogroup is reported at high frequencies in the Caucasus and is thought to be associated with the Neolithic expansion throughout the region. According to a Mitochondrial DNA analysis of four ethnic groups of Afghanistan, the majority of mtDNA among Afghan Pashtuns belongs to West Eurasian lineages, and share a greater affinity with West Eurasian and Central Asian populations rather than to populations of South Asia or East Asia.
The haplogroup analysis indicates the Baluch, Pashtuns and Tajiks share some sort of ancestral heritage. The study also states that among the studied ethnic groups, the Pashtuns have the greatest HVS-I sequence diversity.
A study on autosomal STR profiles of the populations of South and North Afghanistan states:. Among historians, anthropologists, and the Pashtuns themselves, there is some debate as to who exactly qualifies as a Pashtun. The most prominent views are:.
These three definitions may be described as the ethno-linguistic definition, the religious-cultural definition and the patrilineal definition, respectively. The ethno-linguistic definition is the most prominent and accepted view as to who is and is not a Pashtun.
Thus, tribes that speak disparate yet mutually intelligible dialects of Pashto acknowledge each other as ethnic Pashtuns and even subscribe to certain dialects as "proper", such as the Pukhto spoken by the YusufzaiGigyani tribeGhilji and other tribes in Eastern Afghanistan and the Pashto spoken by the KakarWazirKhilji and Durranis in Southern Afghanistan.
These criteria tend to be used by most Pashtuns in Afghanistan and Pakistan. The cultural definition requires Pashtuns to adhere to Pashtunwali codes. However, others tend to be more flexible and sometimes define who is Pashtun based on cultural and not religious criteria: Pashtun society is not homogenous by religion.
The overwhelming majority of Pashtuns are Sunniwith a tiny Shia community the Turi and partially the Bangash tribe in the Kurram and Orakzai agencies of FATA, Pakistan. There are also Hindu Pashtuns, sometimes known as the Sheen Khalai, who have moved predominantly to India. The patrilineal definition is based on an important orthodox law of Pashtunwali which mainly requires that only those who have a Pashtun father are Pashtun.
This law has maintained the tradition of exclusively patriarchal tribal lineage. This definition places less emphasis on what language one speaks, such as Pashto, DariHindkoUrduHindi or English. These communities are often considered overlapping groups or are simply assigned to the ethno-linguistic group that corresponds to their geographic location and mother tongue.
The Niazi is one of these groups. Claimants of Pashtun heritage in South Asia have mixed with local Muslim populations and are referred to as Pathan, the Hindustani form of Pashtun.
The Pathans in India have lost both the language and presumably many of the ways of their ancestors, but trace their fathers' ethnic heritage to the Pashtun tribes. Smaller number of Pashtuns living in Pakistan are also fluent in Hindko, Seraiki and Balochi. These languages are often found in areas such as Abbottaba MansehraHaripurAttockKhanewalMultanDera Ismail Khan and Balochistan.
Some Indians claim descent from Pashtun soldiers who settled in India by marrying local women during the Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent. Notably, the Rohillasafter their defeat by the British, are known to have settled in parts of North India and intermarried with local ethnic groups. They are believed to have been bilingual in Pashto and Urdu until the midth century. Some Urdu-speaking Muhajir people of India claiming descent from Pashtuns began moving to Pakistan in Many Pathans chose to live in the Republic of India after the partition of India and Khan Mohammad Atif, a professor at the University of Lucknowestimates that "The population of Pathans in India is twice their population in Afghanistan".
During the 19th century, when the British were accepting peasants from British India as indentured servants to work in the CaribbeanSouth Africa and other far away places, Rohillas who had lost their empire were unemployed and restless were sent to places as far as Trinida SurinamGuyana, and Fijito work with other Indians on the sugarcane fields and perform manual labour.
Some of them assimilated with the other South Asian Muslim nationalities to form a common Indian Muslim community in tandem with the larger Indian community, losing their distinctive heritage. Their descendants mostly speak English and other local languages. Some Pashtuns travelled to as far away as Australia during the same era. Pashto is the mother tongue of Pashtuns. Pashto is categorised as an Eastern Iranian language, but a remarkably large number of words are unique to Pashto.
Pashto has a large number of dialects : generally divided into NorthernSouthern and Central groups; and also Tarino or Wa?etsi as distinct group. The first Pashto alphabet was developed by Pir Roshan in the 16th century. Pashtun culture is mostly based on Pashtunwali and the usage of the Pashto language.
Pre-Islamic traditions, dating back to Alexander 's defeat of the Persian Empire in BC, possibly survived in the form of traditional danceswhile literary styles and music reflect influence from the Persian tradition and regional musical instruments fused with localised variants and interpretation.
Pashtun culture is a unique blend of native customs with some influences from South and Western Asia. Like other Muslims, Pashtuns celebrate Ramadan and Eid al-Fitr. Some also celebrate Nouruzwhich is the Persian new year dating to pre-Islamic period. Kabul, standardised the present Pashto alphabet. These and other basic precepts of Pashtunwali continue to be followed by many Pashtuns, especially in rural areas.
The majority of Pashtuns use Pashto as their native tonguebelieved to belong to the Indo-Iranian language familyand is spoken by up to 60 million people. The language has ancient origins and bears similarities to extinct languages such as Avestan and Bactrian.
Modern borrowings come primarily from the English language. Fluency in Pashto is often the main determinant of group acceptance as to who is considered a Pashtun.
Pashtun nationalism emerged following the rise of Pashto poetry that linked language and ethnic identity. Pashto has national status in Afghanistan and regional status in neighboring Pakistan. In addition to their native tongue, many Pashtuns are fluent in Urdu, Dariand English.
Throughout their history, poets, prophets, kings and warriors have been among the most revered members of Pashtun society. Early written records of Pashto began to appear around the 16th century.
The earliest describes Sheikh Mali's conquest of Swat. Pashtun scholars such as Abdul Hai Habibi and others believe that the earliest Pashto work dates back to Amir Kror Suriand they use the writings found in Pata Khazana as proof.
Amir Kror Suri, son of Amir Polad Suriwas an 8th-century folk hero and king from the Ghor region in Afghanistan. The advent of poetry helped transition Pashto to the modern period. Pashto literature gained significant prominence in the 20th century, with poetry by Ameer Hamza Shinwari who developed Pashto Ghazals. InKhan Roshan Khan wrote Tawarikh-e-Hafiz Rehmatkhani which contains the family trees and Pashtun tribal names. Some notable poets include Khushal Khan KhattakAfzal Khan KhattakAjmal KhattakPareshan KhattakRahman BabaNazo AnaaHamza ShinwariAhmad Shah DurraniTimur Shah DurraniShuja Shah DurraniGhulam Muhammad Tarziand Ghani Khan.
Recently, Pashto literature has received increased patronage, but many Pashtuns continue to rely on oral tradition due to relatively low literacy rates and education. Pashtun society is also marked by some matriarchal tendencies. Pashto media has expanded in the last decade, with a number of Pashto TV channels becoming available. Two of the popular ones are the Pakistan-based AVT Khyber and Pashto One.
Pashtuns around the world, particularly those in Arab countries, watch these for entertainment purposes and to get latest news about their native areas. International news sources that provide Pashto programs include BBC Pashto and Voice of America. Producers based in Peshawar have created Pashto-language films since the s.
Pashtun performers remain avid participants in various physical forms of expression including dance, sword fighting, and other physical feats. Perhaps the most common form of artistic expression can be seen in the various forms of Pashtun dances.
One of the most prominent dances is Attanwhich has ancient roots. A rigorous exercise, Attan is performed as musicians play various native instruments including the dhol drumstablas percussionsrubab a bowed string instrumentand toola wooden flute. With a rapid circular motion, dancers perform until no one is left dancing, similar to Sufi whirling dervishes. Numerous other dances are affiliated with various tribes notably from Pakistan including the Khattak Wal Atanrh eponymously named after the Khattak tribeMahsood Wal Atanrh which, in modern times, involves the juggling of loaded riflesand Waziro Atanrh among others.
A sub-type of the Khattak Wal Atanrh known as the Braghoni involves the use of up to three swords and requires great skill. Young women and girls often entertain at weddings with the Tumbal Dayereh which is an instrument. The Afghanistan national cricket teamwhich is has many Pashtun players, was formed in the early s. One of the most popular sports among Pashtuns is cricketwhich was introduced to South Asia during the early 18th century with the arrival of the British.
Many Pashtuns have become prominent international cricketers in the Pakistan national cricket teamincluding Imran KhanShahid AfridiMajid KhanMisbah-ul-HaqYounis KhanUmar GulJunaid KhanFakhar ZamanMohammad RizwanUsman Shinwari and Yasir Shah.
Football soccer is also one of the most popular sports among Pashtuns. The Former captain and now the current assistant coach of Pakistan national football teamMuhammad Essais an ethnic Pashtun. Other sports popular among Pashtuns may include polofield hockeyvolleyballhandballbasketballgolftrack and fiel bodybuildingweightliftingwrestling pehlwanikayakinghorse racingmartial artsboxingskateboardingbowling and ss. In Afghanistan, the Pashtuns still practice the sport of Buzkashi. The horse-mounted players attempt to place a Goat or Calf carcass in a goal circle.
Jahangir Khan and Jansher Khan became professional squash players. Although now retired, they are engaged in promoting the sport through the Pakistan Squash Federation. Maria Toorpakai Wazir is the first female Pashtun squash player. Pakistan also produced other world champions of Pashtun origin: Hashim KhanRoshan KhanAzam KhanMo Khan and Qamar Zaman.
In recent decades Hayatullah Khan DurraniPride of Performance legendary caver from Quettahas been promoting mountaineeringrock climbing and Caving in Balochistan, Pakistan. Mohammad Abubakar Durrani International Canoeing shining star of Pakistan. Snooker and billiards are played by young Pashtun men, mainly in urban areas where snooker clubs are found. Several prominent international recognized snooker players are from the Pashtun area, including Saleh Mohammed. Although traditionally very less involved in sports than boys, Pashtun girls sometimes play volleyball, basketball, footballand cricketespecially in urban areas.
Makha is a traditional arry sport in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, played with a long arrow gheshai having a saucer shaped metallic plate at its distal end, and a long bow. Before the Islamization of their territorythe region used to be home to various beliefs and cults, often resulting in Syncretism between the dominant religions such as ZoroastrianismBuddhism or Greco-BuddhismAncient Iranian religionsHinduism and Zunism.
The Khalaj of Kabulsupposed ancestors of the modern Ghilji Pashtuns, used to worship various local ancient Iranian gods such as the fire God Atar. In folkore, it is believed that most Pashtuns are descendants of Qais Abdur Rashi who is purported to have been an early convert to Islam and thus bequeathed the faith to the early Pashtun population. He purportedly had four children: Sarban, Batan, Ghourghusht and Karlan.
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This theory has been criticised, for not being substantiated by historical evidence and based on post-Arabic influence. The Muslim conquest of Afghanistan was not completed until the 10th century under Ghaznavid and Ghurid dynasty 's rule who patronized Muslim religious institutions.
conducted raids against non-Muslim rulers of a Kabul and Zabul.
His son, Mahmud of Ghazni on 28 November then defeated Jayapala at the Battle of Peshawar. Writing in the 11th century AD, Al-Biruni in his Tarikh al Hin stated that the Afghan tribes lived in mountains west of India. The overwhelming majority of Pashtuns follow Sunni Islambelonging to the Hanafi school of thought. There are some Shia Pashtun communities in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas FATA of Pakistan and in neighbouring northeastern section of Paktia Province of Afghanistan.
A legacy of Sufi activity may be found in some Pashtun regions, especially in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa area, as evident in songs and dances. Many Pashtuns are prominent UlemaIslamic scholars, such as Maulana Aazam an author of more than five hundred books including Tafasee of the Quran as Naqeeb Ut Tafaseer, Tafseer Ul Aazamain, Tafseer e Naqeebi and Noor Ut Tafaseer etc.
Although his ethnicity is disputed by some, he is widely accepted in the Afghanistan-Pakistan region as well as in the Arab world, as a Pashtun from the Kunar Province of Afghanistan.
Afghan Pashton girls dance - Balochi Partyislam muslim kabul balkh herat mazar afghan afghanistani panjshir kandahar farsi khorasan tajik hazara pashto pashtun hamid karzai ahmad shah masood massoud iran tajikistan tajik parwan kapisa helmand kandahar khost paktia paktika ghazni ghor badakhshan kunduz kabuli khurasani tolo tv ariana tv khorasan tv hamid qaderi habib Browse Pashtun Girl pictures, photos, images, GIFs, and videos on Photobucket Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube
Like other non Arabic-speaking Muslims, many Pashtuns are able to read the Quran but not understand the Arabic language implicit in the holy text itself. Translations, especially in English, are scarcely far and in between understood or distributed.
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This paradox has contributed to the spread of different versions of religious practices and Wahabismas well as political Islamism including movements such as the Taliban having a key presence in Pashtun society. In order to counter radicalisation and fundamentalism, the United States began spreading its influence in Pashtun areas. Lastly, little information is available on non-Muslim as there is limited data regarding irreligious groups and minorities, especially since many of the Hindu and Sikh Pashtuns migrated from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa after the partition of India and later, after the rise of the Taliban.
A small Pashtun Hindu community, known as the Sheen Khalai meaning 'blue skinned' referring to the color of Pashtun women's facial tattoosmigrated to Unniara, RajasthanIndia after partition. Today, they continue to speak Pashto and celebrate Pashtun culture through the Attan dance. There is also a minority of Pashtun Sikhs in some tribal areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, including in TirahOrakzaiKurramMalakan and Swat.
Due to the ongoing insurgency in Khyber Pakhtunkhwalike many other tribal Pashtuns, some Pashtun Sikhs were internally displaced from their ancestral villages to settle in cities like Peshawar and Nankana Sahib. In Pashtun society there are three levels of women's leadership and legislative authority: the national level, the village level, and the family level. The national level includes women such as Nazo Tokhi Nazo AnaaZarghona Anaa, and Malalai of Maiwand.
Nazo Anaa was a prominent 17th century Pashto poet and an educated Pashtun woman who eventually became the "Mother of Afghan Nationalism" after gaining authority through her poetry and upholding of the Pashtunwali code. She used the Pashtunwali law to unite the Pashtun tribes against their Persian enemies.
Her cause was picked up in the early 18th century by Zarghona Anaa, the mother of Ahmad Shah Durrani. The lives of Pashtun women vary from those who reside in conservative rural areas, such as the tribal beltto those found in relatively freer urban centres. Her duties may include witnessing women's ceremonies, mobilising women to practice religious festivals, preparing the female dead for burial, and performing services for deceased women.
She also arranges marriages for her own family and arbitrates conflicts for men and women. In Afghanistan, the decades of war and the rise of the Taliban caused considerable hardship among Pashtun women, as many of their rights were curtailed by a rigid interpretation of Islamic law. The difficult lives of Afghan female refugees gained considerable notoriety with the iconic image Afghan Girl Sharbat Gula depicted on the June cover of National Geographic magazine.
Modern social reform for Pashtun women began in the early 20th century, when Queen Soraya Tarzi of Afghanistan made rapid reforms to improve women's lives and their position in the family. She was the only woman to appear on the list of rulers in Afghanistan. Credited with having been one of the first and most powerful Afghan and Muslim female activists. Her advocacy of social reforms for women led to a protest and contributed to the ultimate demise of King Amanullah 's reign in Bollywood blockbusters of s and s starred Parveen Babiwho hailed from the lineage of Gujarat's historical Pathan community: the royal Babi Dynasty.
Other Indian actresses and models, such as Zarine Khancontinue to work in the industry. Pashtun women these days vary from the traditional housewives who live in seclusion to urban workers, some of whom seek or have attained parity with men.
According to a book, "a powerful ethic of forbearance severely limits the ability of traditional Pashtun women to mitigate the suffering they acknowledge in their lives. Despite obstacles, many Pashtun women have begun a process of slow change. A rich oral tradition and resurgence of poetry has inspired many Pashtun women seeking to learn to read and write.
Some Pashtun women have attained political office in Pakistan.
Pashtuns (/ ? p ? ? ? t ? n /, / ? p ?? ? ? t ? n / or / ? p ? ? ? t u? n /; Pashto: ???? ?, P?x?tan??; or Pathans), historically known as Afghans, are an Iranian ethnic group native to Central and South Asia. The ethnic group's native language is Pashto, an Iranian language on the Indo-Iranian branch, itself a branch of the larger Indo-European language family real vdoAuthor: mdtopu Whereas rural Pashtun culture remains largely misogynistic and male-dominated due to deeply-ingrained Islamic values, teen-age boys have become
In Afghanistan, following recent elections, the proportion of female political representatives is one of the highest in the world. Pashtun women often have their legal rights curtailed in favour of their husbands or male relatives. For example, though women are officially allowed to vote in Afghanistan and Pakistan, some have been kept away from ballot boxes by males. Human rights organisations continue to struggle for greater women's rights, such as the Afghan Women's Network and the Aurat Foundation in Pakistan which aims to protect women from domestic violence.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Pashtun people. Ethnic group native to South and Central Asia. For other uses, see Pathan disambiguation. Hinduism   Sikhism . Further information: Pashtunistan and Durand Line. Main article: Pashtun tribes. Main article: Theories of Pashtun origin. Further information: History of AfghanistanHistory of Khyber Pakhtunkhwaand History of Balochistan.
Further information: Afghan ethnonym. Main article: Theory of Pashtun descent from Israelites. See also: Pashtun nationalism. Main article: Pashtun diaspora. See also: Pathans in India. Further information: Pathans of KashmirPathans of PunjabPathans of SindhPathans of RajasthanPathans of GujaratPathans of Uttar PradeshPathans of BiharPathans of Madhya PradeshPathans of Tamil Naduand Pathans of Sri Lanka.
Main article: Pashto. See also: Pashto alphabetPashto dialectsand Pashto grammar. Further information: Pashto phonology and Wanetsi. Main article: Pashtun culture. See also: Pashtun cuisine and Pashtun dress. Main article: Pashtunwali. Main article: Pashto literature and poetry.
Further information: Pashto mediaPashto musicand Pashto cinema. Further information: Sport in Afghanistan and Sport in Pakistan. Main article: Muslim conquests of Afghanistan. Main articles: Religion in Afghanistan and Religion in Pakistan. Further information: Women's rights in Afghanistan and Women in Pakistan.
Main article: List of Pashtuns. Retrieved 24 February Retrieved 26 May On the national level, Pushto stood second with Daily News and Analysis. Retrieved 21 February Interacting with mediapersons on Wednesday, Yasmin, the president of All India Pakhtoon Jirga-e-Hind, said that there were 2 lakh Phastoons in the country who were living and working in India but were yet to get citizenship.
The News International. Retrieved 28 May Retrieved 1 December Encyclop?dia Britannica World Data.
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Encyclop?dia Britannica Online. Retrieved 15 March SIL International. Ethnologue : Languages of the World. Retrieved 5 May Retrieved 6 August Retrieved 17 April ru in Russian. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 2 June Total responses: 25, for total count of persons: 19, Northern Pashtuns in Malaysia. muuttujina Maakunta, Kieli, Ika, Sukupuoli, Vuosi ja Tiedot".
Tilastokeskuksen PX-Web tietokannat. Etiquette and Taboos around the World: A Geographic Encyclopedia of Social and cultural customs. ABC CLIO. ISBN Afghanistan: A Country Study by United States Department of the Army. United States Department of the Army, American University. The clash of fundamentalisms: crusades, jihads and modernity. Retrieved 20 April The friends from Peshawar would speak of Hindu and Sikh Pashtuns who had migrated to India.
In the tribal areas - the no man's land between Afghanistan and Pakistan - quite a few Hindus stayed on and were protected by the tribal codes. The same was true in Afghanistan itself till the mujahidin and the Taliban arrived. The Hindu. Retrieved 9 February Arab News. The meat-eating Hindu Pashtuns are a little known tribe in India even today, with a distinct culture carried forward from Afghanistan and Balochistan which includes blue tattoos on the faces of the women, traditional Pashtun dancing and clothes heavily adorned with coins and embroidery.
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Retrieved 1 May One can sense a diminutive yet charming cultural amalgamation in certain localities within the town with the settling of around Pashtun Sikh families in the city. Ruchi Kumar, The decline of Afghanistan's Hindu and Sikh communitiesAl Jazeera,"the culture among Afghan Hindus is predominantly Pashtun" Beena Sarwar, Finding lost heritageHimal,"Singh also came across many non turban-wearing followers of Guru Nanak in Pakistan, all of Pashtun origin and from the Khyber area.
Descriptive Grammar of Pashto and its Dialects. De Gruyter Mouton. The Pathan Borderland. Retrieved 1 January The most familiar name in the west is Pathan, an Hindi term adopted by the British, which is usually applied only to the people living east of the Durand.
World English Dictionary. Tribal populations and cultures of the Indian subcontinent. Leiden: E. OCLC Retrieved 22 July Vol II: Letters and Buddhist". Khalili Collectins : Abdul Hai Habibi. Retrieved 24 October Retrieved 22 November Persian Literature in Translation. Packard Humanities Institute. Archived from the original on 11 February Retrieved 10 January British Library.
Ethnic Groups of South Asia and the Pacific: An Encyclopedia: An Encyclopedia. ISBN - via Google Books. Ethnic Groups of North, East, and Central Asia: An Encyclopedia.
Encyclop?dia Britannica. Retrieved 10 September Pashtun, Pashto-speaking people residing primarily in the region that lies between the Hindu Kush in northeastern Afghanistan and the northern stretch of the Indus River in Pakistan The origins of the Pashtun are unclear. According to Pashtun tradition, they are descended from Afghana, grandson of King Saul of Israel, though most scholars believe it more likely that they arose from an intermingling of ancient Aryans from the north or west with subsequent invaders.
Crafting Masculine Selves: Culture, War, and Psychodynamics in Afghanistan. Oxford University Press. United Nations world data form. Joshua project. Retrieved 19 January World atlas. A Historical Atlas of Afghanistan. The Rosen Publishing Group. Retrieved 17 October Retrieved 22 April Aurora Dawn. Retrieved 0 October The New Encyclop?dia of Islam. Rowman Altamira. The Pashto-speaking tribesman who live in Afghanistan, where they are one of the main ethnic groups, and in Pakistan, where they are generally called by the variant term Pathan Hindi and Urdu.
BBC News. Census of India. Archived from the original on 1 February Retrieved 17 March Archived from the original on 14 May Retrieved 0 January Joshua Project. London School of Economics. Retrieved 6 June Frontline on PBS. Pakistan: nationalism without a nation? Zed Books. Retrieved 22 August UN university. Minority Rights Group. United Nations. Retrieved 10 October Retrieved 19 August Archived from the original on 1 October Retrieved 1 October Library of Congress.
Library of Congress Country Studies on Afghanistan. August Archived from the original on 8 April The History Files. Retrieved 16 August University of Texas at Austin. Retrieved 10 February Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 8 November though most scholars believe it more likely that they arose from an intermingling of ancient Aryans from the north or west with subsequent invaders.
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The Pathans. Moscow: Ferozsons. Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies, University of London. doi : Archived from the original on 1 June The fact is that the important Ghilzai tribe occupies now the region round Ghazni, where the Khalaj used to live and that historical data all point, to the transformation of the Turkish Khalaj into Afghan Ghilzai. Endagered Turkic Languages II A.
Aral?k: - The History of Afghanistan, 2nd Edition. Department of History and Cultural Studies of the Free University, Berlin PhD Thesis : The Hephthalites may also have participated in the origin of the Afghans.
The Afghan tribe Abdal is one of the big tribes that has lived there for centuries. Renaming the Abdals to Durrani occurred inwhen descendants from the Sadozai branch Zirak of this tribe, Ahmad-khan Abdali, became the shah of Afghanistan. In the tribe changed its name to "Durrani" when Ahmad khan became the first king of Afghanistan and accepted the title "Dur-i-Duran" the pearl of pearls, from Arabian: "durr" - pearl.
Pashtun girl neked
Dictionary of Vedanta. The History of Herodotus. Translated by George Rawlinson. Retrieved 25 May Life of the Amir Dost Mohammed Khan; of Kabul. Volume 1. Crabtree Publishing Company. The Afghans. A Brief History of Pakistan. Infobase Publishing. The World's Major Languages.
Historical Society of Afghanistan. Cama Oriental Institute, The Wa?. If we want to assume that this agreement points to some special connection, and not to a secondary, parallel development, we should have to admit that one branch of pre-Pa??to had already, before the splitting off of Wa?.
An isolated, but important, agreement with Sangl. w???t; w ugd "long;" v???duk see above But we find similar development also in Shugh. amba?c, vu??j. ?c, ??j. and Sangl. ?t, gd. It is, however, possible that the original home of Pa??to may have been in Bada?san, somewhere between Munji and Sangl. and Shugh. Kolkata, India: Iran Society.
A Study in Pashto Stress. Pashto in its origin, is probably a Saka dialect. Etymological Dictionary of the Iranian Verb. Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series. Etymological dictionary of the Iranian verb. But it seems that the Old Iranic ancestor dialect of Pa??to must have been close to that of the Gathas.
Shepherd - Perry-Castaneda Map Collection - UT Library Online". Retrieved November Historical Atlas. Creative Media Partners, LLC. Retrieved 2 November and Keith, A. The Vedic Index of Names and Subjects. E, Translated by George Rawlinson". Retrieved 21 September E, Translated by G. The Gates of India, Being an Historical Narrative.
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All contemporary historians, arologists and linguists are agreed that since the Scythian and Sarmatian tribes were of the Iranian linguistic group Foreign Influence on Ancient India. Northern Book Centre.
According to Strabo c. A Concise History of Afghanistan in 25 Volumes. Trafford Publishing. Herodotus's Scythians and Ptolemy's Central Asia: Semasiological and Onomasiological Studies. Reirt Verlag. Retrieved 7 November " : Studia Philologica Iranica: Gherardo Gnoli Memorial Volume.
Scienze e lettere. University of Washington. Warlords who have exploited Islam for political or personal means have also promulgated tolerance for bacha bazi. The mujahideen commanders are a perfect example of this - they fought communism in the name of jihad and mobilized thousands of men by promoting Islam, while sexually abusing boys and remaining relatively secular themselves.
The rampant pedophilia has a number of far-reaching detrimental consequences on Afghanistan's development into a functional nation. The first - and most obvious - consequence of bacha bazi is the irreparable abuse inflicted on its thousands of victims.
Because it is so common, a significant percentage of the country's male population bears the deep psychological scars of sexual abuse from childhood. Some estimates say that as many as 50 percent of the men in the Pashtun tribal areas of southern Afghanistan take boy lovers, making it clear that pedophilia is a pervasive issue affecting entire rural communities.
Many of the prominent Pashtun men who currently engage in bacha bazi were likely abused as children; in turn, many of today's adolescent victims will likely become powerful warlords or government-affiliated leaders with boy lovers of their own, perpetuating the cycle of abuse. A second corrupting, and perhaps surprising, consequence of bacha bazi is its negative impact on women's rights in Afghanistan. It has become a commonly accepted notion among Afghanistan's latent homosexual male population that "women are for children, and boys are for pleasure.
Although social and religious customs still heavily dictate that all men must marry one or more women and have children, these marriages are often devoid of love and affection, and are treated as practical, mandated arrangements. While the Afghan environment has grown more conducive to improving women's social statuses, the continued normalization of bacha bazi will perpetuate the traditional view of women as second-class citizens - household fixtures meant for child-rearing and menial labor, and undeserving of male attraction and affection.
The third unfortunate consequence of bacha bazi is its detrimental bearing on the perpetual state of conflict in Afghanistan, especially in the southern Pashtun-dominated countryside. Because pedophilia and sodomy were, and remain, a main point of contention between the Islamist Taliban and traditional Pashtun warlords, the widespread nature of bacha bazi likely continues to fuel the Taliban's desire to reassert sharia law.
The adolescent victims are vulnerable to Taliban intimidation and may be used to infiltrate the Afghan government and security forces. The resurgence of bacha bazi since the Taliban's defeat and the significant percentage of government, police, and military officials engaged in the practice has put the United States and its NATO allies in a precarious position.
By empowering these sexual predators, the coalition built a government around a "lesser evil," promoting often-corrupt pedophiles in lieu of the extremist, al-Qaida-linked Taliban.
Going forward, the strong Western moral aversion to pedophilia will likely erode the willingness of NATO and international philanthropic agencies to continue their support for Afghanistan's development in the post-transition period. As Joel Brinkley, a reporter for the San Francisco Chronicle, asked: "So, why are American and NATO forces fighting and dying to defend tens of thousands of proud pedophiles, certainly more per capita than any other place on Earth?
Despite the grave nature of the child abuse committed across Afghanistan, this tragic phenomenon has received relatively little global attention.
It has been highlighted mainly in sporadic news articles and one Afghan-produced documentary, while other Afghan issues such as women's rights and poverty are center stage. From a human rights perspective, the pervasive culture of pedophilia deserves substantial international consideration due to its detrimental effects - the immediate and noticeable effects on the young victims, as well as the roadblocks it creates towards achieving gender equality and peace.
The only way to tackle both bacha bazi and gender inequality is to modernize Afghanistan's rule of law system. Afghan officials have been scrutinized in multiple reports by the United Nations' Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict for their failure to protect children's rights. Although Afghan officials formally agreed to outlaw these practices in response to U. criticism inthe government's ability and willingness to internally enforce laws protecting children has been non-existent.
If a future Afghan government can achieve a balance between the Taliban, who strictly enforced anti-pedophilia laws but harshly oppressed women, and the current administration, which has put an end to the hard-line Islamic subjugation of women but has allowed bacha bazi to reach shocking levels, Afghanistan's dismal human rights record may improve.
An additional strategy for combating bacha bazi is to attack the issue from an ethno-cultural standpoint. Identifying key tribal elders and other local powerbrokers who share the West's revulsion towards such widespread pedophilia is the first step in achieving lasting progress.
As is true with women's rights, understanding Afghanistan's complex social terrain and bridging its cultural differences is necessary to safeguard the rights of adolescent boys.
The Afghan government's acknowledgement of bacha bazi and subsequent outreach into rural Pashtun communities, where the legitimacy of the government is often eclipsed by the power of warlords and tribal elders, will also be critical.
The most important breakthrough, of course, will come when the Afghan government, police, and military rid themselves of all pedophiles. If the central government can ensure its representatives at the local level will cease their engagement in bacha bazi, the social norms are bound to change as well. Eliminating this truly damaging practice will finally occur when a pedophile-free Afghan government is able to more closely connect the country's urban centers to its rural countryside.
Only then will a progressive social code be established.
And if this evolved social code can incorporate the tenets of Islam with social justice and effectively marginalize the archaic and abusive cts of Pashtun and Tajik warlord culture, there is hope for Afghanistan yet. Mondloch served as an analyst for the US Marine Corps for five years and directed intelligence production for the Corps' Economic Political Intelligence Cell in Helmand province in Brisbane man who tested positive for coronavirus held a house party with friends while waiting for result.
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